HOW ARE EGGS PRODUCED IN KENYAN POULTRY FARMS?
Layer chicken farming is intended poultry for commercial egg production. Laying hens are chickens of a particular breed that must be reared from the first day of life. They start commercial laying at 18 weeks. They continue to lay eggs continuously until the age of 72–78 weeks.
The chicks reared in kenya (young pullets) is reared in a house for 18 weeks. Once the desired body weight is reached, the hens are moved to a laying area.
House and exposed to increasing day length with artificial light to stimulate spawning. It takes 23 to 27 hours for an egg to form and lay.
WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF RAISING CHICKENS FOR MEAT IN KENYA?
Each is kept in its cage, and food and water are stored in each cell. Using Folds: The chicken is held in a structure called a fold. Troughs and troughs are located on the outside of each layer. Birds feed on fences.
1. Health Care: Regular vaccinations and preventative measures are essential to poultry disease control. Consult local veterinarians to create a vaccination schedule and address health concerns.
2. Slaughter: Once the animals have reached the desired weight and size for meat production, they can be slaughtered. This process must be done humanely and according to local regulations and guidelines. Proper slaughtering and processing facilities are essential to ensuring food safety and quality.
3. Processing and packaging: After slaughter, poultry farm inspections must be appropriately processed, including de-feathering, cleaning the meat, and preparing for consumption. Good hygiene and adequate sanitary facilities are essential at this stage. The heart can then be packaged for sale or consumption.
HOW DO POULTRY FARMERS IN KENYA MANAGE EGG INCUBATION?
Try to lay fertile hatching eggs that are no more than four days old before being applied. Eggs older than seven days gradually lose the ability to hatch into viable chicks. Eggs should be stored at 16 to 18 degrees Celsius in the the egg incubation process, physically clean, well-formed, uniform in color, with no cracks, and oval in shape. Eggs should be stored with the broad side up and the pointed side down in a clean, disinfected environment.
The hens incubate and hatch in 21 days. You should consult with your veterinarian regarding the chicken vaccination schedule for chicks before getting a good start. Most chicks receive the Newcastle and Marek vaccines before leaving the hatchery. Only quality chicks can be sold to customers. A good chick weighs 2/3 the weight of the egg when laid. Any value below may indicate dehydration due to lower incubation humidity. Chicks should be packed in ventilated boxes and moved to the house within 12 hours of hatching.
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT STAGES OF THE POULTRY PRODUCTION PROCESS IN KENYA?
As in many other countries, poultry production in Kenya involves several stages of chicken farming, including rearing chickens for meat and egg production. These steps typically include:
1. Breeding and hatchery: The process begins with the selection of high-quality breeding chickens bred to produce fertile eggs. These eggs are collected and placed in hatcheries, where they are incubated under controlled conditions until the chicks hatch.
2. Incubation Stage: Once the chicks hatch, they are incredibly fragile and need a warm, controlled environment called an incubator. During this stage, chicks are provided with heat lamps, adequate ventilation, clean water,, and specially formulated starter feed to ensure healthy growth.
3. Growth Phase: As the chicks grow, they gradually move to a larger house with more space. They continue to receive adequate nutrition through different chicken growth stages of feeding formulated to meet their changing nutritional needs. The growth phase can
HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE FOR A CHICKEN EGG TO HATCH IN KENYA?
The chicken hatchery process takes 20–21 days for chicken eggs and can go up to 30 days for other birds.
Initially, the egg incubation process requires a very controlled heat input to maintain the optimum temperature of 38°C because the embryo is microscopic. As the seed grows (especially after 18 days), it produces more heat than necessary and may need refrigeration. A humidity level of 60 to 80% R.H. (which increases during the incubation period) is essential to prevent excessive moisture loss from the egg contents through the porous shell and membranes. Factors to consider for a successful natural incubation include:
· Food and water should be close to the chicken.
· The broody hen should be examined to ensure she has no external parasites.
· All eggs intended for incubation should be kept at a temperature between 12 and 14°C, with a high humidity between 75 and 85%, and kept for a maximum of seven days.
Extra fertile eggs bought from elsewhere below the hen should be introduced at dusk.
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF TEMPERATURE CONTROL IN POULTRY FARMING IN KENYA?
Reaching the optimal temperature is essential. Poultry health monitoring involves monitoring chick behavior at all stages to ensure they are at the right temperature. If the following behavior shows that the chicks are too cold or hot, the house temperature should be adjusted accordingly.
Poultry farm climate control: the heat source is more significant and widely distributed, meaning chicks cannot move as quickly to choose the desired temperature. The whole house or a specific part is only heated by “fan heaters,” aiming to achieve a suitable temperature in the home or the crawl space. The building has no temperature gradient, although additional incubators can also be installed. The primary heat source throughout the house can be direct or indirect (using warm air).
HOW ARE CHICKS CARED FOR AFTER HATCHING IN KENYAN POULTRY FARMS?
Chicks reared in Kenya should be kept at 95 degrees Fahrenheit during the first week of life. In the second week, the temperature should be lowered to 90 degrees Fahrenheit, then dropped 5 degrees each week until the chicks are 5–6 weeks old.
In the chicken farm environment, placing the thermometers in the incubator will inform you of the current temperature in different parts of the container, allowing you to adjust the heat lamps if necessary. Placing one in the center and one on the edge of the box will enable chicks to choose where they feel most comfortable, allowing you to control the temperature in both areas. Simply monitoring your chicks is a good indicator. Are the breathless chicks trying to get away from a heat source? This means they are too hot. The girls are all together; maybe they are too cold. Are the girls together? It means they are hard. Once you know what to look for, you can adjust your heating system accordingly.
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF BROILER PRODUCTION IN THE KENYAN POULTRY INDUSTRY?
Broilers are raised for meat. In Kenya, broiler management practices are raised by both companies and individuals. Large-scale enterprises include Isinya Poultry and Brade Gate Poultry Industries. These companies supply hearts both locally and in other countries.
The broilers’ growth depends on their diet’s balanced protein content and other nutrients. With optimal levels of protein and amino acids, growth is unlimited, and animals take longer to reach marketable weight.
HOW ARE POULTRY FEEDS FORMULATED FOR OPTIMAL GROWTH IN KENYA?
Some common ingredients used in Kenya for chicken feed formulation are maize, wheat bran, soybean meal, sunflower seed cake, fish meal,, and bone meal. Corn is the primary source of energy in poultry feed and is a rich source of carbohydrates.
Corn: 50–60%; soybeans: 25–30%; DCP: 1-2% (dicalcium phosphate), LSP: 1% (limestone powder); mustard: 1-3%, MBM:
1-5% (bones of meat flour), premix:
2-4%; and other ingredients such as millet, canola, rice bran, maize gluten, GNE, wheat, broken rice, etc.
WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BIOSECURITY MEASURES IN KENYAN POULTRY FARMS?
However, correlation analyses show that increased adoption of poultry biosecurity measures is associated with positive poultry health outcomes. This has been demonstrated by the lower mortality rates among farmers, characterized by a more frequent use of biosecurity measures.
Biosecurity practices can Prevent the introduction and spread of disease. Protect people from zoonotic diseases (transmitted between animals and humans), and commit to animal health and food safety.
HOW DO KENYAN POULTRY FARMERS PREVENT AND MANAGE DISEASES IN FLOCKS?
Diseases were a significant challenge among the poultry farmers surveyed due to antibiotics. Poultry disease management through measures such as biosecurity procedures and vaccination is vital to reducing the use of antibiotics. This has been demonstrated in pig farms in Belgium, where the biosafety level was related to the amount of antibiotics used . Biosecurity in poultry production is based on three main principles: cleaning, separation,, and disinfection . Together, these measures reduce the risk of disease introduction and spread. A low level of biosecurity measures was found in our study. A cost-benefit analysis of biosecurity can incentivize farmers to implement measures on their poultry farms.
Vaccination and poultry biosecurity measures can significantly reduce antibiotic use without compromising production levels . In our study, most broiler and layer producers vaccinated their animals against infectious poultry diseases, but not systematically.
WHAT ROLE DO VACCINATIONS PLAY IN THE POULTRY PRODUCTION PROCESS IN KENYA?
Chicken vaccination schedules are widely used to prevent and control infectious poultry diseases. Its use in poultry production aims to avoid or minimize the occurrence of clinical diseases at the farm level, thereby increasing production. Vaccines and vaccination schedules vary widely depending on various local factors (e.g., type of production, local disease progression, costs,, and potential losses) and are usually regulated by the poultry industry.
In the last decade, the financial losses caused by the primary epidemic diseases in poultry (avian influenza and Newcastle disease) have been enormous, both for the commercial and public sectors. Vaccination should also be applied in the context of national or regional poultry disease prevention and eradication programs under the official supervision of the public veterinary services. This document provides an overview of the use of vaccination to control infections in poultry, with a particular focus on the control of transboundary poultry diseases.
HOW ARE LAYERS AND BROILERS MANAGED DIFFERENTLY IN KENYAN POULTRY FARMS?
Some general information on how laying hens (chickens raised for egg production) and broilers (chickens presented for meat production) are generally managed differently in Kenyan chicken farming farms. However, remember that practices and trends may have changed since then. It’s good to consult local experts or sources for the most up-to-date information.
1. Housing: Laying hens require specific poultry housing system conditions to optimize egg production. The chicken coops have nest boxes where the hens can comfortably lay their eggs. The houses are usually well-ventilated and designed to facilitate egg collection.
2. Lighting: Light is a crucial factor in egg production in laying hens. Artificial lighting is often used to stimulate egg production with carefully controlled lighting schedules. The length and intensity of light exposure can affect egg production.
3. Nutrition: The laying hen’s diet is formulated to provide the nutrients needed for egg production. It generally contains higher levels of calcium to support eggshell development. Proper nutrition is essential for both the quantity and quality of eggs.
4. Health Care: Laying hens requires specific health management practices to ensure their welfare and sustainable egg production. Vaccination programs and disease prevention measures are essential aspects of laying hen management.
5. Collect Eggs: Eggs are collected regularly to prevent cracking or damage. It also helps maintain cleanliness and hygiene, which are essential for egg quality.
Management of broilers:
1. Housing: Broilers are kept in poultry housing designed to maximize their growth efficiency. These houses are usually temperature-controlled and well-ventilated to ensure optimal growing conditions.
2. Nutrition: Broiler feeds are formulated to promote rapid growth and efficient meat production. The feed contains a higher protein content than the feed for laying hens to support muscle development.
3. Lighting: Lighting in chicken coops is often used to encourage feeding and continued growth. Unlike laying hens, broilers cannot follow strict light schedules to promote egg laying.
4. Healthcare: Disease prevention and management are also critical for broilers. Adequate biosecurity measures are implemented to prevent outbreaks in the herd.
5. Growth Monitoring: Poultry health monitoring tools like broilers is closely monitored for their growth rates and overall health. Farmers adapt their feeding and management practices based on observed growth patterns.
WHAT IS THE AVERAGE life span of CHICKEN chicken raised MEAT meat in Kenya?
On the other hand, chickens on factory farms are the farm animals with the shortest lifespan. The laying hen lives longer: about 20 months or about 1.5 years. Broiler production in Kenya, on the other hand, reaches slaughter weight after 40 days.
The fate of male chicks is unfortunate: they are killed at the age of one because the industry does not need them. They don’t lay eggs and produce much less meat than a broiler, so raising them isn’t profitable. From an animal welfare point of view, the fate of day-old chicks is one of the significant problems in kenyan chicken farming
HOW ARE CHICKEN PROCESSED AND PREPARED FOR MARKET IN KENYAN POULTRY FARMING?
How chicken is typically processed and prepared for poultry marketing strategies in the Kenyan poultry industry. Keep in mind that practices may have evolved since then. So it’s always a good idea to check newer local sources for the most up-to-date information.
1. Slaughter: Chickens are usually slaughtered humanely and hygienically to ensure the quality and safety of the meat. This means chickens are killed quickly, and stress is minimal. Standard methods of slaughter include manually cutting the neck or using mechanical equipment. After slaughter, the blood is drained.
2. Scalding: Slaughtered chickens are soaked in hot water to loosen the feathers and make them easier to remove. Scalding also helps remove dirt and debris from the skin.
3. Plucking: The feathers are removed mechanically or manually after scalding. This process requires some skill to avoid damaging the skin or leaving feather residue.
4. Evisceration: Evisceration of the chicken, including the digestive tract, lungs, heart,, and other organs. This step is essential to prevent meat contamination by bacteria from the digestive system.
5. Cleaning and Cooling: Chickens that have been eviscerated are cleaned thoroughly to remove any remaining dirt or contaminants. They are then cooled to reduce the growth of harmful bacteria and ensure food safety.
WHAT CHALLENGES DO KENYAN POULTRY FARMERS FACE DURING THE PRODUCTION PROCESS?
Poor feed quality is the most prominent chicken farming challenge poultry farmers face in production. Most streams are below average. Good-quality food should contain all the necessary nutrients.
Although demand is increasing, the meat and egg market is very volatile. Market prices keep changing with import levels.
The poultry farming timeline in neighboring countries is cheaper than in Kenya. This makes eggs and meat more affordable and more competitive. When imports flood the market, farmers are desperate and have no choice but to sell their produce at foreign prices.
Sales under contract and on credit negatively impacted most farmers as sellers did not honor payment. This caused most farmers to count their losses. As a poultry farmer, therefore, never sell your produce on credit.
Also, only disassemble the boiler after payment confirmation. While poultry farming can be beautiful, avoid it if you lack a market.
HOW DOES THE HOUSING SYSTEM IMPACT POULTRY PRODUCTION IN KENYA?
The poultry housing system significantly impacts poultry production in Kenya, just like in any other country. Proper housing is essential for the welfare, health,, and productivity of poultry.
Here are some of the ways the housing system affects poultry production in Kenya
1. Biosecurity and disease control: Proper housing can help control and prevent poultry disease. Well-designed buildings can limit exposure to pathogens, parasites,, and wild birds, reducing the risk of epidemics. Adequate ventilation and separation between different groups can be crucial to maintaining biosafety.
2. Climate Control: Kenya has diverse climatic regions, and proper housing design can help regulate temperature, humidity,, and airflow for optimal poultry growth and egg production. This is especially important in areas prone to extreme temperature changes.
3. Protection from predators and theft: Adequate housing protects chicken farm risk management from predators and theft, a common problem in many parts of Kenya. Predators such as foxes, birds of prey,, and even pets can injure or kill poultry, affecting production.
4. Stress Reduction: Overcrowded or poorly designed housing can lead to stress in poultry, resulting in lower egg production and slower growth. Sufficient space and comfortable living conditions are essential to minimizing stress.
5. Egg quality and production: The housing environment affects egg quality control and presentation.
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FREE RANGE AND INTENSIVE POULTRY PRODUCTION IN KENYA?
The mean herd size in the intensive poultry farming system was higher than in the semi-intensive and free-range poultry farming systems. This is related to the requirements for keeping chickens. In the intensive system, chickens are raised for commercial purposes and grown in large numbers.
HOW ARE MALE AND FEMALE CHICKS SEPARATED IN KENYAN POULTRY FARMS?
In laying hen farms that supply the laying hens’ egg industry, eggs are developed in industrial incubators. Once hatched, the newborn chicks go through a production line to be sexed and sorted. Sick or weak females and all male chicks are separated from healthy females and killed.
When strong and healthy, chickens with gender separation, like female chicks, are moved to a place where they are reared to the correct size and then moved to a laying facility—a cage, range,, or shed. Male chicks are considered an unwanted by-product of egg production and are killed and discarded soon after they are sexed when they are only one day old.
WHAT ARE THE KEY FACTORS AFFECTING EGG PRODUCTION IN KENYA?
Light is one of the factors influencing spawning. Enlightenment generates various hormonal responses and cascades that promote egg production. During times of low light, such as winter or when daylight hours are short, egg production may decrease.
Laying hens are susceptible to stressful conditions due to their nature as prey animals. Therefore, sudden changes of any nature must be avoided: temperature, feeding, humidity, noise, location, herds, and predators. Furthermore, the diseases themselves cause stress in poultry due to the symptoms they cause. When pressure is high, egg production begins to decline significantly.
With all its consequences, chicken feed composition is undoubtedly the most critical factor in poultry farming. Proper nutrition and a balanced and adequate food supply are necessary to maintain good egg production.
Water consumption in poultry is important, as water is essential for all physiological processes. Egg production largely depends on the hydration status of the hens. Water is generally involved in all physiological processes as it forms intracellular and extracellular fluids.
HOW ARE WATER AND SANITATION MANAGED IN KENYAN POULTRY FARMS?
Once the previous herd has been slaughtered or depleted, the building and poultry farming equipment must be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected. Leave the house empty for two weeks before the next pack arrives. This reduces the accumulation of pathogenic organisms.
After removing the birds from the house, remove all equipment and dampen the ceiling, walls, and bedding with water. This minimizes dust when removing dirt. Remove all old waste and dispose of it at least 1.5km from the farm.
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF GENETICS IN IMPROVING POULTRY PRODUCTION IN KENYA?
The high poultry genetic improvement diversity of the native chicken represents a rich genetic resource for exploiting the potential hybrid vigour to improve productivity in Kenya.
Intensive genetic selection for economically important traits, including body weight, growth rate, feed efficiency,, and, ultimately, features related to carcass processing characteristics, has contributed to the increased productivity and efficiency achieved in the broiler sector.
HOW ARE WASTE MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS ADDRESSED IN POULTRY farming?
Two types of housing are often used in poultry houses: cage pit systems and floor/litter systems. Spreading of animal waste is a critical poultry farm waste management practice to recycle nutrients, improve or maintain soil fertility, and improve soil biological and physical properties.
. Elements of an effective waste management program for the use of organic waste in agriculture include site selection; production and harvesting; storage, handling, and processing; transfer and request; and use
WHAT ARE THE BEST PRACTICES FOR MANAGING POULTRY HEALTH IN KENYA?
Poultry farm inspections in that your birds should not come into contact with wild birds and rodents as they can transmit germs and diseases. Also, keep your surroundings as clean and dry as possible. Make sure you wash your hands thoroughly before and after feeding or coming into contact with your birds
Poultry farming trends: for example, in the event of an outbreak, place sick birds in a birdhouse away from healthy birds and see your vet immediately to report it and get appropriate medical advice. Finally, it is good poultry health management practice to refrain from returning collected birds to the flock for at least 30 days.
HOW DOES THE KENYAN GOVERNMENT REGULATE POULTRY PRODUCTION AND SAFETY?
regulate poultry production and safety. The main body responsible for regulating agricultural and livestock activities, including poultry farming, is the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries, and Cooperatives. This ministry is responsible for formulating and implementing policies, poultry export regulations,, and standards related to poultry production, health,, and safety.
Here are some critical aspects of how the Kenyan government regulates poultry production and safety:
1. License and Registration: Poultry farmers must register their activities with the relevant government agencies. This helps the government keep track of the number of farms and birds kept, which is essential for disease control and surveillance and also chicken farm automation
2. Biosecurity Measures: The government emphasizes the importance of chicken farm biosecurity measures to prevent the spread of disease among poultry farms. This includes guidelines for house layout, hygiene practices, and measures to prevent contact between wild birds and domestic poultry.
3. Disease control: The government monitors and controls poultry disease to prevent epidemics. This concerns vaccination campaigns, disease surveillance, and measures to combat epidemics.
4. Quality and safety standards: The government sets quality and poultry farm worker safety standards for poultry products, including processing, packaging,, and transportation guidelines. These standards are designed to ensure that poultry products that reach consumers are safe to eat.
5. Veterinary Services: The government provides veterinary services and support to poultry farmers. This includes access to veterinary professionals for diagnosis, poultry farm waste treatment,, and advice on sound husbandry practices.
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN MODERNIZING POULTRY FARMING IN KENYA?
As the availability of land and labour decreases over time,poultry technology adoption has a vital role in making agriculture as efficient as possible and even more so. Robotics and innovative technologies are emerging as key players in the global fight to improve agriculture and exist in various forms.
HOW DO KENYAN POULTRY FARMERS ENSURE FOOD SAFETY FOR CONSUMERS?
Poultry food safety: provides chickens with fresh, clean water and feeds them a healthy, balanced, plant-based diet. Examine food, water, and other samples provided by our laboratory to ensure they meet the required safety standards.
• Ensure our farms supply the hatchery with clean, healthy, and fertile hatching eggs.
WHAT IS THE LIFECYCLE OF A CHICKEN RAISED FOR MEAT IN KENYA?
The poultry farming cycle: includes rearing small flocks of about 23 birds left free to feed with little or no supplementation. In Kenya, native chickens are raised in rural areas free-range as they are cheap and less labour-intensive.
Here is a general overview of the life cycle:
- Raising and Hatching: The process starts with raising chickens for meat production. These chickens are often referred to as broilers. Chicken breed selection breeder as chickens lay fertilized eggs collected and placed in incubators. The eggs are kept at controlled temperature and humidity levels to ensure successful hatching. After about 21 days, the eggs hatch and give rise to chicks.
- Newborn chicks are fragile and require a controlled environment called an incubator. The brooder provides warmth, protection, water, and chick starter feed access. This stage usually lasts for the first few weeks of the chick’s life until it develops enough feathers to regulate its body temperature.
- Growth Phase: After the chicks hatch, they are moved to a larger space, such as a chicken coop or rabbit hutch, where they have more room to move. They are fed a balanced diet designed to promote rapid growth. The main goal of this phase is to ensure the efficient conversion of food into muscle mass.
HOW ARE ORGANIC POULTRY PRODUCTS PRODUCED IN KENYA?
- In organic poultry farming production systems, animals are raised without cages in housing that allows access to the outdoors, fed with organic feed and managed with proactive practices and natural treatments.
- Organic Poultry Production in the United States was published in 2008 by ATTRA. It covers organic agriculture, including living conditions, health, genetics and provenance, feed, and processing, as specified in the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Organic Program (NOP) breeding requirements. This article is about living and housing conditions, including comparing NOP standards with those in other countries.
WHAT IS THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE POULTRY INDUSTRY IN KENYA?
Poultry industry impact: many families depend on the sector for their income by selling animal products, for their jobs, and for
food sources. The livestock sector is also a significant benefactor to Kenya’s economy, contributing about 12% of the national gross domestic product (GDP) and 42% of the agricultural GDP.
The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), the International Center for Dryland Agricultural Research, the Alliance of Bioversity International, and CIAT have launched, under the new One CGIAR, a new research initiative called Animal Productivity Sustainable for Livelihoods and Nutrition. and Gender Inclusion (SAPLING). The industry focuses on the value of the poultry and chicken meat supply chain in Kenya.
HOW ARE ANTIBIOTICS AND MEDICATIONS USED IN KENYAN POULTRY FARMING?
Standard practices included prophylactic use, poultry antibiotic use to enhance production, self-prescribing, use of combination antibiotics (a combination antibiotic is a combination where two or more antibiotics are added together for an additional therapeutic effect), and antibiotics classified as critical. In. human medicine.
The primary sources of information for farmers were agro-food distributors, day-old chick sellers, and peer learning. External factors driving inappropriate antibiotic use include antibiotic access, the influence of merchants such as day-old chick sellers, and brand image. Economic factors have also urged the use of antibiotics among farmers, day-old chick sellers, and agrochemical distributors.
WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON CHICKEN BREEDS RAISED IN KENYA?
Several poultry farming best practices Breeds
of chickens are commonly raised in Kenya for different purposes, including meat and egg production. Remember that specific breeds’ popularity can change over time due to market demand, climate suitability, and advances in husbandry practices.
Here are some of the most common chicken breeds raised in Kenya:
- Kienyeji/native chicken: These local indigenous chicken breeds adapted well to the Kenyan climate. They are known for their hardiness and ability to resist disease and harsh environmental conditions. They are often raised for meat and egg production.
- Kuroiler: The Kuroiler breed is a cross between broiler chicken and Rhode Island Red or Plymouth Rock. They are known for their rapid growth and chicken meat distribution, making them famous for meat production.
- Rainbow Rooster: This breed crosses the Kuroiler and the Rhode Island Red. They are known for their chicken meat processing in Kenya,
- excellent meat quality, and relatively fast growth.
- Kenbro: Kenbro chickens are a hybrid breed developed by Kenchic Ltd., a Kenyan poultry company. Bred for meat and egg production, they are known for their excellent growth rate and ability to lay eggs.
- Broilers: While not a breed in their own right, broilers are chickens bred specifically for rapid growth and chicken meat quality production.
HOW DOES NUTRITION INFLUENCE THE GROWTH AND HEALTH OF KENYAN POULTRY
Poultry feeds must be formulated to meet all chicken nutrition guidelines and the needs of the animals if optimal growth and production are to be achieved. There are six classes of nutrients: Carbohydrates: The primary source of energy for poultry.
Most of the carbohydrates in poultry feed ingredients are supplied by grains.
- Fats provide energy and essential fatty acids needed for specific bodily processes.
- Proteins are needed for synthesizing body tissues (especially muscles), physiological molecules (such as enzymes and hormones), feathers, and egg production. Protein also provides a small amount of energy.
- Vitamins are organic chemicals (carbon-containing chemicals) that help control body processes and are needed in small amounts for everyday health and growth.
- Minerals are inorganic (non-carbon) chemicals that help control bodily processes and are necessary for everyday health and growth.
WHAT ARE THE MAIN SOURCES OF PROTEIN IN POULTRY FEED IN KENYA
Soybean meal and fish are our traditional sources of protein and make up 16 to 22% of the final traceability of the final poultry product, depending on the type of bird and its amino acid requirements. Sunflower flour is another good source of protein that is high in fibre, oil, and amino acids.
Unfortunately, these chicken products
are not grown in abundance locally and have to be imported. It is said that the ecological conditions are not conducive to their production. While the millers ponder the future, I’ll offer alternative sources of locally sourced protein.
HOW ARE EGGS QUALITY AND SIZE CONTROLLED IN KENYAN POULTRY FARMS?
The essential nutrients for egg quality control are linoleic acid, egg white, and specific amino acids. Reducing the level of one or a combination of these nutrients in your diet will minimize egg size. However, this reduction should only occur after 40 weeks of age, as this will reduce egg production.
Poultry nutrition research suggests that reducing the linoleic acid content of this diet would be beneficial, but it should be noted that this is more difficult to achieve with corn-based than wheat-based diets. A decrease in total dietary protein may also be helpful, but a reduction in dietary protein may also reduce the number and size of eggs.
The amino acid that most influences egg weight is methionine. Reducing the methionine content in the second parent’s diet is another option to control late egg size. Again, there is a delicate balance between supporting sustained egg production and maintaining late egg size.
WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF EGG COLLECTION AND CLEANING IN KENYA?
A wet cleaning may be necessary if the eggs are foul or the yolk is stuck to the shell. Chicken farm hygiene involves washing the eggs under warm tap water, and the water should be hotter than the egg’s temperature but not boiling. Pat each egg dry with paper towels and place it in a clean, open box or rack.
Poultry farm data management disinfects washed eggs by spraying them with a bleach solution diluted with water.
If you plan to sell your eggs, check with your county extension office for local and state regulations regarding the cleanliness of eggs for sale in your area.3
HOW ARE DAY-OLD CHICKS TRANSPORTED SAFELY IN KENYAN POULTRY FARMS?
Day-old chicks are generally transported by placing them in a perforated box of 50 chicks per box, with 1-2 extra chicks added to compensate for mortality. Remember that the cardboard must be perforated to prevent the chicks from suffocating.
After packing the day-old chicks properly, it’s time to transport them to the chicken farm automation, which you must have prepared to welcome them. More details on preparing your farm to welcome day-old chicks can be found in the next topic.
In chicken farming, day-old chicks are usually transported in a well-ventilated vehicle, which is ideal. This is done under close supervision of the chicks, and the timing should be appropriate. What time? Yeah, you don’t always carry your girlfriend. You will have to accept them if the weather is favourable. Notzzz under a scorching sun. The practice usually occurs very early in the morning or evening, when the sun should have set. Part of what you should consider also includes the message.
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING IN POULTRY EGG PRODUCTION IN KENYA?
The daylight stimulates egg production; therefore, chicken production efficiency increases as the days get longer. On open days, common in the tropics, artificial lighting can be used to extend the spawning period.
Artificial light can be applied at nightfall for two to three hours, increasing egg production by 20–30%.
In enclosed houses, where layers are not exposed to natural light, the length of the artificial day should be increased in one or more passes until the fake day reaches 16–17 hours, which ensures maximum and constant egg laying. Production. The effective day length should never decrease during the laying period.
HOW DO KENYAN POULTRY FARMERS MANAGE TEMPERATURE DURING BROODING?
Heat: The chicken needs a temperature around 90–95 degrees F for the first week, turning it down about 5 degrees each week. Hang a warm light bulb about a foot above the floor of the incubator for extra warmth. You can also use Jiko charcoal. Calculate one Jiko for every 300 chicks
In most cases, you can manage the climate of your poultry farm by controlling the heat of your flock using airflow. Air circulation at the animal level is essential to dissipate animal heat. Increasing ventilation to dissipate animal heat should be your number one priority. However, there are some cases where ventilation is restrictive.
Naturally ventilated homes risk heat stress if the air is still and no additional fans are available. Even mechanically ventilated poultry coop man ement houses can be at risk if they have insufficient ventilation and air mixing capacity for the size and number of birds present.
WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CONDITION ON POULTRY PRODUCTION IN KENYA
Rising temperatures can reduce fertility and hatchability, affecting chickens’ health and reproductive performance. Extreme heat can also affect the expression of genes related to growth, chicken production efficiency and disea,se resistance.
The most obvious constraint on poultry production is climate. Poultry appears particularly sensitive to temperature-related chicken farm environment problems, including heat stress. High temperatures, especially with high humidity, cause considerable pressure on the birds and reduce performance.
HOW ARE POULTRY DISEASES DIAGNOSED AND TREATED IN KENYA
Poultry disease diagnosis and treatment of poultry diseases in Kenya, as in any other country, involves a combination of approaches that consider clinical signs and laboratory tests. The specific procedures may vary depending on the disease, the resources available and the skills of the people involved. Here is a general overview of how poultry diseases are commonly diagnosed and treated in Kenya:
- Clinical Examination: Veterinarians or experienced poultry farmers observe birds for visible signs of disease, such as lethargy, decreased feed intake, respiratory problems, abnormal droppings, changes in behaviour, obehavior mortality rates.
- Laboratory Tests: In some cases, laboratory tests are needed to confirm the presence of specific pathogens.
common test include
•Necropsy A postmortem examination of dead birds can provide information on the cause of death and help identify any visible lesions or abnormalities.:
Bacteriology: Bacterial cultures can be performed on samples of sick birds to identify pathogenic bacteria.
• Virology: Viral isolation and detection techniques can be used to identify viral infections.
• Serology: Blood samples can be tested for antibodies to specific diseases, indicating exposure or infection.
• Molecular diagnostics: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests can detect the genetic material of pathogens, providing a particular method of identification.
- Field Test Kits: Rapid diagnostic kits are sometimes used to identify specific diseases quickly. These kits can provide preliminary results and guide treatment decisions.
- Medications: Depending on the poultry disease diagnosed, veterinarians can prescribe appropriate medications such as antibiotics, antivirals, or other therapeutic agents. It is essential to take your medicines as prescribed.
- Supportive care: Providing supportive care can increase your chances of recovery. This includes maintaining adequate housing, nutrition and hydration. Sick birds may need isolation to prevent the spread of disease.
- VaccinatioThe n: chicken Vaccination schedule is a cr ial preventive measure for many poultry diseases. Different vaccination programs are followed depending on the type of disease and the age of the animals.
WHAT ARE THE COMMON BIOSECURITY PROTOCOLS FOLLOWED IN KENYAN POULTRY FARMS
Poultry biosecurity measures for maintaining poultry farming are described below.
• Agricultural workers must wear clean and tidy clothes and boots.
• Hand sanitizer should be used before entering and leaving the house.
• Agricultural workers must not entertain or come into contact with birds outside the farm.
• Visitors to farms should be discouraged, especially those contracted as veterinarians and service providers. Visitor guidelines should be signposted both outside and inside the farm.
• Do not leave pets, wild birds and livestock on the farm.
• The spraying of disinfectants on the farm must occur thrice a week, getting sick once or twice a day, depending on the nature of the disease.
• The spraying of disinfectants in visitors’ vehicles must be done strictly.
• Treated water should be used in case of surface water or disease.
HOW DO KENYAN POULTRY FARMERS MINIMIZE STRESS IN THEIR FLOCKS
Like poultry farmers everywhere, Kenyans can employ and chicken farming education for various strategies to minimize stress in their flocks. Reducing stress is essential for maintaining animal health, productivity and overall welfare. Here are some strategies Kenyan poultry farmers should consider:
- Adequate housing and ventilation: Ensuring your chicken coop design is well-ventilated, well-insulated, and has sufficient space can prevent overcrowding and maintain optimal temperature and humidity levels. A comfortable environment reduces stress.
- Biosecurity Measures: Implementing string t poultry biosecurity measures can prevent the introduction and spread of disease. This includes visitor screening, sanitizing equipment and maintaining a clean environment. Healthy birds are less likely to be stressed.
- Food and water: Ensuring a balanced and adequate diet is essential. Malnutrition can lead to a weakened immune system and increased sensitivity to stress. Equally important is access to fresh, clean water.
WHAT ARE THE BEST PRACTICES FOR MANAGING POULTRY WASTE IN KENYA
Poultry farm waste treatment manure use and soil improvement are an essential part of sustainable agriculture. There are several ways to manage the manure from the poultry in your backyard flock: • Direct application in your garden – Application should be in early spring, and the soil should be turned over. Never add fresh manure to edible crops. Fresh manure can “burn” plants and expose edibles to harmful bacterial growth. • Collection for Composting – See the Department of the Environment’s website (http://www.mass.gov/dep/recycle/reduce/compos01.htm) for more information. • Waste Disposal: Larger quantities may require a collection service.
HOW ARE EGGS GRADED AND SORTED IN KENYAN POULTRY FACILITIES
Grading involves grading based on egg quality control, size, and weight standards. The rate is based on the quality of the shell, air cell, albumen and yolk.
For example, the highest quality A.A. has a clean, undamaged, and unblemished shell; the air cell is 1/8 inch deep or less; the white is brilliant and decisive; and the contour of the yolk is poorly defined and free from defects such as bloodstains. The USDA Egg Grading Manual describes grading within the USDA framework
Grading also includes grading eggs into weight or size categories, including pee-wee, small, medium, large, extra large, and jumbo. The USDA Egg Grading Manual explains the weight, chicken farm record keeping required for each egg and the importance of a dozen eggs for each weight category. Consumers notice variations in size within a box, but less from one package to the next. In most states, small egg producers are not required to grade their eggs and cartons are generally required to be marked as ungraded.
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF NUTRITIONISTS IN DESIGNING POULTRY DIETS IN KENYA.
Nutritionists, whose job is to design and implement feeding programs according to company guidelines, have found that these programs often change rapidly and chicken nutrition requirements make drastic changes in how they feed their birds.
Nutritionists in Kenya evaluate the availability and cost-effectiveness of locally sourced food ingredients. They strive to create diets with locally available grains, legumes and other foods to minimize production costs and reduce reliance on expensive imported poultry feed ingredients.
Poultry nutritionists are considering including immune-boosting additives and supplements to increase birds’ resistance to disease. Good nutrition can play a role in maintaining a robust immune system in poultry.
HOW DO KENYAN POULTRY FARMERS ENSURE ANIMAL WELFARE DURING PRODUCTION
The five freedoms of animal welfare were promoted in the 1960s and are now applied in poultry farming to ensure the highest quality and chicken farm ethics in produc on systems. Among these freedoms is the recommendation that poultry be freed from hunger, thirst and malnutrition.
Chicken welfare standards, for example, over the past decades, Poultry Nutrition has developed feeds that meet the nutritional needs of poultry and optimize their development and growth.
Giordano Poultry Plast, on the other hand, through its subsidiary Valery Technologies, has managed to create bowls and troughs with cutting-edge technology. These products facilitate the feeding and watering of poultry because they are efficient manual or automatic systems that respect the Environment.
WHAT ARE EXPORT OPPORTUNITIES FOR KENYAN POULTRY PRODUCTS
Rwanda, South Sudan, Somalia, Uga,nda and Ethiopia are the main markets for Kenyan chicken products. Kenya recently attempted to boost poultry export regulations after resuming direct exports to Oman after a 16-year hiatus.
So far, the country has shipped 18,000 live animals through the port of Salalah, Oman. Kenya is also trying to secure Saudi Arabia and the UAE as possible destinations for live exports after a high-profile delegation visited the country in April this year.
HOW DO CONSUMER PREFERENCES INFLUENCE THE POULTRY PRODUCTION PROCESS IN KENYA
Consumer preferences play an important role in shaping the poultry production process in Kenya as they directly influence various aspects of production, marketing and distribution.
Here’s how consumer preferences influence the poultry production process:
- Product supply and demand: Consumer preferences determine the types of poultry products in the market. For example, if consumers prefer chicken meat over other types of poultry, producers will focus more on broiler production in kenya . This affects allocating resources, such as land and investment, to meet consumer demand.
- Breeding and Genetics: Consumer preferences for specific characteristics of poultry products, such as taste, texture, size and colo,ur, influence breeding and poultry genetics improvement programs. Producers will selectively breed poultry whose characteristics match consumers’ preferences, resulting in the desired features of the product.
- Feed and animal nutrition: Consumer demand for healthier and more ethically sourced poultry products can influence chicken feed formulation.
Housing and Welfare: Growing concerns about animal welfare and environmental impact may lead to poultry housing and production methods changes. When consumers show a preference for products from farms with better animal welfare practices
WHAT TRAINING AND EDUCATION ARE AVAILABLE FOR KENYAN POULTRY FARMERS
Chicken farm education through the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) INVEST Africa partnership, representatives from Thika Technical Training Institute and Rift Valley Technical Training Institute in Kenya have developed a poultry farming course for non-formal community training.
Poultry farming is one of the most popular business forms for small farmers. Poultry requires little capital and is easy to raise and manage. Poultry faA poultryimeline,therefore, offers farmers an excellent opportunity to start an income-generating business. This course aims to equip students with all the knowledge and skills necessary to raise poultry for meat and eggs and to operate a small commercial poultry farm. A.A.
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