HOW TO PREVENT DISEASES IN POULTRY FARMING IN KENYA?
In general, poultry disease management can be reduced by good farm hygiene, biosecurity measures, and the vaccination of chickens.
Here are some steps you can take to help prevent disease on your poultry farm:
1. Biosecurity Measures:
• Restrict Access: Restrict access to your poultry farm only to essential staff and visitors. This will help prevent the introduction of external diseases.
• Quarantine: Quarantine for new birds before introducing them into the existing flock. This will allow you to watch for any signs of disease before they can spread to healthy birds.
• Footwear and Clothing: Provide special footwear and clothing for agricultural workers and visitors to be worn only on farmland to prevent cross-contamination.
• Vehicle disinfection: Disinfect vehicles and equipment entering the farm to prevent the spread of disease.
• Rodent and pest control: Implement measures to control rodents, insects, and other pests that can transmit disease.
2. Hygiene and sanitation:
• Clean feed and water: Ensure animals always have clean, uncontaminated feed and water.
• Clean environment: Regularly disinfect your home, equipment and environment to minimize pathogens and create a stress-free environment
• Manure Management: Manage and dispose of manure properly to reduce the risk of disease transmission.
• Removal of sick birds: Remove and isolate sick birds quickly to prevent the spreading of disease within the flock, like poultry eye infection
3. Vaccination and health management:
• Vaccination: Follow an appropriate vaccination schedule that
veterinarians recommend for common poultry diseases in Kenya. Vaccinations can significantly reduce the risk of an epidemic.
• Regular Health Checks: Perform regular health checks on your birds to identify any signs of illness and take appropriate action quickly.
WHAT ARE THE COMMON POULTRY DISEASES IN KENYA?
Poultry disease symptoms, like health problems, can go virtually undetected for days or weeks, while others can kill chickens within hours. Here are six of the most common health problems chickens face:
1. Avian cholera
Avian cholera is a chronic disease caused by Pasteurella multocida that can affect joints, lobes, infraophytes, sinuses, and other tissues. Common symptoms include loss of appetite, diarrhoea with a greenish tinge, ruffled feathers, swollen purple wattles, swollen crest, swollen joints, lameness, discharge from the mouth, nose, and eyes, and sudden death.
Use avian influenza prevention and control to reduce symptoms in chickens.
Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by coccidial protozoa that live in and damage a specific part of the intestines of chickens. Problems begin when chickens consume a sporulated oocyst, which is degraded by chemicals in the gut, releasing an infective sporocyst. Thus begins the life cycle that destroys intestinal epithelial cells.
Coccidiosis management is associated with damage to the intestinal walls; this leads to loss of appetite, diarrhoea, ruffled feathers, weight loss, and an inability to absorb nutrients.
3. Bird flu
Avian influenza is a disease caused by orthomyxovirus
type A. They commonly occur and are spread via wild waterfowl that infect domestic poultry. Diarrhoea, runny nose, crest and barbel swelling, purplish discoloration, coughing and sneezing, swelling, ruffled feathers, and many more are symptoms of bird flu. Farmers should use parasite control methods to reduce the spread of diseases in poultry
TIPS FOR MAINTAINING POULTRY HEALTH IN KENYA
Poultry-healthy tips make hens live in a stress-free environment and produce more giant eggs and better-quality meat than hens living in overcrowded barns.
Select the correct variety.
Research is a critical factor in this. Are you buying chickens to have lots of eggs? Are you looking for chickens that produce lots of meat or both?
Maintain the cooperative
This might sound like a good idea, but it is essential to keep your water clean for poultry and change the water daily. Provide a secure cage with adequate lighting. Having a safe indoor space is vital for your birds, and consider adding a small heater for the winter.
Invest in quality food.
Provide a good source of food. Add calcium- and mineral-rich additives, such as oyster shell gravel or diatomaceous earth, to the grains. This will not only enrich the chicken’s diet, but the addition of calcium will also contribute to the production of solid eggs and chick health management
EFFECTIVE DISEASE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR KENYAN POULTRY?
Poultry vaccination is the most crucial option for disease prevention practices. However, vaccination failure and subsequent outbreaks in vaccinated chickens are significant problems in poultry farming. This could be due to live vaccines, which could become virulent again, causing disease.
Furthermore, vaccine recommendations may become non-viable due to improper handling and failure to elicit the expected immune response. Biosecurity is an indispensable tool to prevent the spread of infectious diseases in poultry, yet only a few poultry farmers understand and apply these measures.
Biosecurity measures and the principles of isolation and containment remain paramount. However, more documents are available on the impact of these measures in different poultry farming contexts, and there needs to be more evidence of their feasibility and effectiveness.
In most developing countries, farmers depend on indigenous knowledge and practices to control, prevent, and treat mycoplasma infections affecting humans and animals. Therefore, ethno-veterinary herbal medicines have attracted more attention due to their accessibility, ease of preparation, and accessible administration.
BEST PRACTICES FOR BIOSECURITY IN KENYAN POULTRY FARMS
Biosecurity measures control access to people, vehicles, or equipment entering the farm to reduce potential contamination. Reduce the potential interaction of wild or domestic animals with birds. Properly dispose of dead birds to minimize the spread of disease. Implement practices to prevent and control disease on the farm.
HOW TO IDENTIFY SYMPTOMS OF POULTRY DISEASES IN KENYA?
Identifying the symptoms of poultry disease in Kenya requires careful observation of your birds and a basic understanding of the symptoms of the most common diseases. Here are some general guidelines to help you spot potential poultry disease symptoms:
1. Behavioral Changes:
• Lethargy: Birds that are unusually inactive, reluctant to move, or spend more time sitting may not feel well.
• Decreased appetite: A sudden reduction in food intake can indicate an underlying health problem.
2. Respiratory Symptoms:
• Coughing and sneezing: An audible cough or wheezing can be signs of respiratory infections.
• Difficulty breathing: Rapid or laboured breathing can indicate difficulty breathing.
3. Digestive Problems:
• Diarrhea: diarrhea in poultry with loose or watery stools, especially if accompanied by other symptoms, can indicate digestive problems.
• Changes in stool: discoloration, blood, mucus, or unusual stool consistency may indicate illness.
4. Changes in Appearance:
• Ruffled feathers: By monitoring poultry health, birds that look scruffy with ruffled feathers may be sick.
• Weight loss: Significant weight loss or worsening of your physical condition may indicate illness.
5. Changes in egg production:
• Decrease in egg production: A sudden decrease in egg production or a drop in egg quality can be associated with health problems and also egg-laying issues
WHAT VACCINES ARE RECOMMENDED FOR KENYAN POULTRY?
The vaccine recommendations for Kenyan poultry may vary depending on the region, poultry type, and common diseases. However, several commonly recommended poultry vaccines in Kenya are recommended to prevent the most common and economically important diseases. It is essential to work closely with a veterinarian or poultry health professional to develop a vaccination program tailored to the specific needs of your farm.
Here are some commonly recommended vaccines for Kenyan poultry:
1. Mareks: Mareks disease treatment is given subcutaneously and injected into the loose skin on the back of the chicken’s neck. The vaccine is usually given on commercial farms to prevent Marek’s disease, which can cause tumours and paralysis.
2. Gumboro: The gumboro vaccine is usually administered through drinking water. The vaccine is in the form of a powder, which must be dissolved in water according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Chickens drink the water and receive the vaccine orally.
3. Newcastle disease: Newcastle disease control can be given via eye drops or drinking water. With the eye drops, a small amount of the vaccine is poured into each eye of the chicken. For drinking water, the vaccine is dissolved in water, and the chickens drink it.
NATURAL REMEDIES FOR POULTRY HEALTH IN KENYA?
While natural remedies for poultry can complement conventional poultry health management practices, it is essential to note that severe diseases and health problems in poultry often require immediate veterinary intervention and pharmaceutical treatment. That said, here are some natural remedies and practices that can help promote the health of poultry in Kenya:
1. Herbal Supplements:
• Garlic and onions contain natural antimicrobials that can help boost immunity and protect against some infections. Add finely chopped or crushed garlic and onions to food or water.
• Turmeric: Turmeric contains curcumin, which has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Adding a small amount of turmeric to your diet can aid digestion and support your immune system.
• Oregano and Thyme: These herbs have natural antimicrobial properties and can be added to food or water as a supplement.
2. Probiotics and Fermented Foods:
• Probiotics: Probiotics for poultry supplements contain beneficial bacteria that can support intestinal health and digestion in poultry.
• Fermented foods: Fermented foods such as yoghurt or buttermilk can introduce beneficial bacteria into the digestive system and help maintain healthy gut flora.
3. Apple Cider Vinegar:
• Adding a small amount of raw, unfiltered apple cider vinegar to drinking water can help maintain proper pH levels in the digestive system and promote overall health.
4. Neem Leaf and Oil:
• Neem leaves and oil are traditionally used as natural remedies to control poultry parasites. Neem oil can be added to poultry litter, and neem leaves can be added to feed.
STEPS TO CREATE A DISEASE PREVENTION PLAN FOR KENYAN POULTRY?
Establishing a disease prevention practices plan for Kenyan poultry involves a systematic approach combining biosecurity measures, vaccination strategies, hygiene practices and regular monitoring. Here is a step-by-step guide to help you develop an effective disease-prevention plan for your poultry farm:
1. Evaluate the situation of your company:
• Identify the types of poultry you raise, common diseases in your area and the specific challenges you face.
2. Collect information:
• Research on common poultry diseases in Kenya and their symptoms, methods of transmission and risk factors.
3. Set clear goals:
• Define the goals of your disease prevention plan, such as reducing the incidence of disease, minimizing losses and ensuring herd health.
IMPORTANCE OF PROPER VENTILATION FOR POULTRY HEALTH IN KENYA?
Metabolic processes increase the moisture content. Ventilation importance, birds excrete water through respiration and faeces. Moisture accumulates in the room and must be removed by ventilation. Furthermore, the humidity increases the thermal sensation of the birds.
On the other hand, this metabolic process releases a large amount of heat into the environment, which we measure by temperature. Since birds cannot sweat, they expel excess heat by breathing, flapping their wings vigorously, and panting.
Proper ventilation for poultry help to remove excess heat and humidity from the poultry houses where the animals are housed, generating comfort and well-being.
HOW TO MANAGE NEWCASTLE DISEASE IN KENYAN POULTRY?
There is no specific treatment for Newcastle disease. Newcastle disease control antibiotics may be given for three to five days to prevent secondary bacterial infections (antibiotics do not affect viruses). Increasing the chick hatch temperature by 5°F can help reduce losses.
There is no specific treatment for Newcastle disease. Antibiotics may be given for three to five days to Newcastle diseases prevention secondary bacterial infections (antibiotics do not affect viruses). Increasing the chick hatch temperature by 5°F can help reduce losses.
WHAT IS COCCIDIOSIS AND HOW TO CONTROL IT IN KENYAN POULTRY?
Coccidiosis management, caused by the apicomplexans parasite of the genus Eimeria, has seven known species that affect parts of the intestinal tract of chickens. Diseases resulting from the ingestion of sporulated oocysts have been associated with an inadequate management system
Strict biosecurity practices combined with prophylactic agents were the first strategies implemented to control this disease. Synthetic drugs (such as amprolium, nicarbazin, diclazuril and toltrazuril) have been used effectively for many years to control coccidiosis in poultry.
TIPS FOR PREVENTING AVIAN INFUENZA IN KENYAN POULTRY FARMS?
Similarly, Avian influenza prevention storage areas for feed and farm supplies, as well as the chicken coop itself, should be protected from wild birds: by closing off any open storage areas and sealing up all cracks, crevices and holes. Doors and gates should be permanently closed to prevent wild birds from entering buildings.
Avian health maintenance in that, all farm supplies and disposals, such as delivering young birds, feeding and collecting eggs, slaughtering animals and carcasses, are carried out elsewhere using ramps and pipe fittings. Connections for hot water pressure washers should also be located near the loading and unloading points.
MANAGING POULTRY DISEASES WITH LIMITED RESOURCES IN KENYA?
With limited resources, poultry disease management in Kenya requires a strategic and focused approach. While it can be difficult, there are several cost-effective steps you can take to minimize the risk of disease and promote the health of your flock:
1. Prioritize essential biosecurity:
• Implement simple biosecurity measures, such as restricting farm access, establishing quarantine protocols for new birds, and providing primary handwashing stations for farm workers.
2. Regular Health Checkups:
• Train agricultural workers to recognize early signs of illness and to carry out regular health checks. Early diagnosis can help prevent disease outbreak response from spreading and reduce the cost of treatment.
3. Vaccination priority:
Kenyan poultry health focus on vaccinating against your region’s most common and economically impacting diseases. Consult a veterinarian to determine essential vaccines for your herd.
ROLE OF NUTRITION IN MAINTAINING POULTRY HEALTH IN KENYA?
Animals use energy to perform normal bodily functions such as breathing, eating and maintaining body temperature. Poultry nutrition guide give poultry the energy and material necessary to develop bones, meat, feathers and eggs.
Each of these compounds is important in providing poultry with the nutrients it needs, and a deficiency in even one of them can have severe consequences for poultry health.
HOW TO CONTROL EXTENAL PARASITES IN KENYAN POULTRY?
Parasite control methods combat external parasites, birds should be treated with a powder or spray that contains, e.g. trichlorfon or malathion. Cages and houses must be thoroughly cleaned. Hens clean their feathers daily with earth or sand (a dust bath). The birds will use a shallow tray of sand and ash (left over from a fire) to help keep the feathers clean and free from infection. A light dusting of powder will enhance the powder bath.
Cages and poultry houses should be thoroughly cleaned if birds are infected with external parasites though preventing poultry diseases. All bedding and debris should be removed, and all equipment should be washed thoroughly with soap and hot water.
If possible, spray or paint the equipment with a mixture of paraffin and creosote in equal quantities or with nicotine sulphate (40%). Your veterinary service will advise you on what is locally available and what you can use.
EARLY DETECTION METHODS FOR POULTRY DISEASES IN KENYAN FARMS?
Kenyan poultry care offers standard methods for detecting poultry diseases include observing bird behaviour, physical appearance, droppings type, and laboratory analysis of a chicken droppings sample.
HOW TO MANAGE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN KENYAN POULTRY?
Poultry respiratory health offers Grippozon that is used as a spray at 200 ml/10 litres of water for 2000 birds twice daily, 2-3 days a week. This creates a very effective mist effect and provides faster respiratory relief for birds. Grippozon is an effective tool for managing respiratory problems
STEPS TO QUARANTINE NEW BIRDS IN A KENYAN POULTRY FARM?
Quarantine procedures takes six weeks to assess the health of new birds fully. A minimum quarantine period of 30 days signs is recommended. If there is any sign of illness, reset the time to Day 1. Never introduce a “wrong colour” or sick bird into your flock because the quarantine period
COMMON MISTAKES TO AVOID IN POULTRY DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN KENYA
Poor hygiene and poor ventilation in poultry houses are common in poultry health mistakes . Keeping birds in dirty, poorly ventilated and dark enclosures can lead to many health problems, such as respiratory problems, mite/lice infestation, reduced egg production and other health problems and diseases.
DEALING WITH MAREKS DISEASES IN KENYAN POULTRY?
He said the only cure for Marek’s disease treatment is a vaccine given to day-old chicks by subcutaneous inoculation or directly into the egg (by in vivo inoculation) when they are transferred from the incubator to hatchery until day 18.
BIOSECURITY MEASURES TO PREVENT DISEASE SPREAD IN KENYAN POULTRY?
Implementing effective biosecurity measures is essential to prevent the spread of disease in Kenyan poultry farms. Here are some critical biosecurity practices you can adopt to minimize the risk of disease transmission:
1. Restricted access:
• Limit access to your poultry farm to only necessary personnel. Visitors must be limited; anyone entering the farm must follow appropriate biosecurity protocols.
Quarantine all new birds before introducing them into your existing flock. This allows new birds to be observed and tested for any signs of disease before they come into contact with healthy birds.
HOW TO PREVENT AND TREAT EGG RELATED HEALTH ISSUES IN POULTRY?
Give your birds good, balanced food from a reputable supplier. The nutritional status of your birds will affect their resistance to many common pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and parasites. A good diet will also help your birds lay good quality eggs regularly due to egg health management
TIPS FOR MANAGING POULTRY STRESS AND ITS IMPACT ON HEALTH IN KENYA?
Water pipes should be buried and not exposed to direct sunlight if possible. Always ensure a sufficient supply of fresh clean water for poultry by adding chilled water to the tanks. Try to feed birds during excellent times of the day and avoid pureed diets whenever possible.1 Mac 2023
ROLE OF PROPER LIGHTING IN MAINTAINING POULTRY HEALTH IN KENYA?
Poultry lighting benefits where by birds raised in daylight produce more eggs due to the release of FSH and LH. The brightness of the light also affects egg production. Under practical conditions, a light intensity of 1 foot candle is required in laying houses.
Lighting for ventilation in multi-duck cage system requires a minimum light intensity of 0.5-foot candle on the lower deck. Maximum egg production requires 16 hours of light during peak egg production. Reducing the photoperiod during the laying period has severe consequences for egg production. Artificial light can be given both in the morning and the evening or in the morning and the evening.
HOW TO CREATE A VACCINATION SCHEDULE FOR KENYAN POULTRY?
When planning a vaccination schedule program for Kenyan poultry, you should carefully consider the diseases prevalent in the region, the types of poultry you raise, and the specific needs of your flock.
Here is a step-by-step guide to help you create an immunization schedule:
1. Understand regional disease risks:
• Research and understand common poultry diseases in your specific region of Kenya. Consult with local veterinary authorities and experts to determine which diseases pose the greatest threat to your herd for preventing poultry health
2. Consult a vet:
• Consult a veterinarian experienced in poultry health. They can help you tailor a vaccination program to fit your business needs and immunity boosting in poultry
3. Identify significant diseases:
• Identify the major diseases requiring vaccination in your region. Prioritize diseases based on their prevalence and potential impact on your herd for fungal infection prevention
MANAGING COMMON DIGESTIVE DISORDERS IN KENYAN POULTRY?
Management of common poultry diseases digestive disorders in Kenyan poultry requires a combination of good management practices, proper nutrition and early intervention. Here are some strategies to help you manage digestive issues in your poultry flock:
1. Provide fresh, clean water:
Clean water poultry, make sure your birds always have access to clean, uncontaminated water. Dehydration can make digestive problems worse.
2. Balanced Diet:
• Provide a balanced diet that meets your birds’ nutritional needs. Consult a poultry nutritionist to create a diet suitable for the specific life stage and type of poultry for chick health management
3. Avoid Sudden Diet Changes:
• Gradually introduce new foods or change your diet to avoid digestive problems. Sudden changes can lead to digestive problems.
ORGANIC APPROACHES TO DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN KENYAN POULTRY FARM?
Organic disease control in a clean environment, good sanitation, biosecurity measures are encouraged to prevent the spread of disease and reduce bird stress. An organic poultry system for meat production can use vaccines recognized to prevent known diseases, provided the vaccines are not genetically modified.
PREVENTING AND TREATING FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN KENYAN POULTRY?
Ways to reduce the risk of various fungal infections prevention include practising good personal hygiene and protecting against mould in the environment. Here are some tips to prevent yeast infections: Shower after getting dirty or sweaty. Make sure parts of the skin do not stay wet
• Clean and use your contact lenses as directed by your eye doctor.
• Keep nails short and clean.
• Take only prescribed antibiotics. Taking antibiotics for too long can cause yeast overgrowth in the body and lead to an infection.
HOW TO CONTROL MITES AND LICE IN KENYAN POULTRY?
Mite infestation control and lice in Kenyan poultry is essential for maintaining bird health and preventing disease. These parasites can cause discomfort and stress and even transmit disease. Here are the steps you can take to control mites and lice in your poultry flock effectively:
1. Regular cleaning and disinfection:
• Keep the stall clean and dry. Regularly clean and disinfect the hutch, hygienic nesting areas and perches to eliminate hiding places for mites and lice.
2. Powder Baths:
• Provide access to dust baths with suitable materials such as diatomaceous earth, wood ash or fine sand. Birds will use these baths to control external parasites.
3. Pest Traps:
Disease control measure install sticky traps or tape near perches to trap crawling insects like mites. These traps can help reduce the population.
4. Management of poles:
Managing poultry health by using perches made from materials less hospitable to pests, such as metal or plastic.
IMPORTANCE OF CLEAN BEDDING IN MAINTAINING POULTRY HEALTH IN KENYA?
Proper bedding poultry and sanitizing the home is essential to prevent Marek’s disease, mycoplasmas, respiratory viruses, E. coli, mites and other poultry health problems. Even more important is the control of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), especially in laying hens.
Heat stress prevention by turning off the electricity to the building before using the water for cleaning. Wet cleaning involves three stages: soaking, washing and rinsing. Warm or hot water removes organic matter better than cold water. You can use an inexpensive neutral detergent, such as dish soap.
RECOGNIZING AND MANAGING VIRAL DISEASE IN KENYAN POULTRY?
Treatment of viral infection recognition rash disease focuses on managing symptoms. Fever medications, such as acetaminophen, can relieve some more bothersome symptoms. Antiviral drugs like acyclovir may be given for chickenpox or shingles.2
Practising good personal hygiene is the best way to prevent poultry respiratory health illnesses. Wash your hands often, cover your mouth when coughing or sneezing, and limit your interactions with people showing symptoms of respiratory illness.
TIPS FOR PREVENTING CANNAIBALSM IN YOUR KENYAN POULTRY FLOCK?
Cannibalism generally refers to the behaviour of animals that consume the flesh of their kind. While cannibalism can be a problem on poultry farms, it is not a common problem in most situations. However, if you notice pecking or aggressive behaviour in your poultry,
Here are some tips preventing cannibalisms and how to control it;
1. Sufficient Space: Crowding is a common factor that can lead to aggressive behaviour in poultry. Make sure your birds have enough room to move around comfortably for free range disease control. Provide at least 2-3 square feet per bird in the loft and outdoor enclosure.
2. Provide enrichment: boredom and lack of stimulation can contribute to aggressive behaviour. Provide environmental enrichments such as perches, dust bath areas, and pecking items like hanging vegetables.
3. Balanced Feed: Ensure your poultry receives balanced nutrition and nutritious feed. A lack of good nutrients can lead to abnormal behaviours. Consult a poultry nutritionist to create an appropriate diet.
ROLE OF PROBIOTICS IN PROMOTING POULTRY HEALTH IN KENYA?
Probiotics for poultry help maintain a stable intestinal flora, which is essential to preventing dysbiosis, which can predispose birds to serious infectious diseases such as necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfins.
The use of probiotics for preventing botulism or mitigating the effects of dysbiosis, mainly necrotic enteritis, is widely supported by numerous scientific publications and is widespread in intensive poultry production.
Knap and colleagues even concluded from their studies of commercial chickens that probiotic use of B. licheniformis spores could be an alternative to drug treatment of necrotic enteritis and that this type of probiotic could be beneficial in preventing poultry disease caused by infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogen
HOW TO MANAGE HEAT STRESS IN KENYAN POULTRY FARMS?
During heat stress prevention, animals will increase their water intake by 2 to 4 times their regular intake. Plenty of water space, functional bowls, and cool water temperatures will encourage birds to drink. Flush water pipes and troughs regularly to keep the water fresh.
STEPS TO TAKE DURING AN OUTBREAK OF INFECTIONS DISEASES IN KENYAN POULTRY?
During an outbreak of infectious poultry disease in Kenya, it is crucial to take immediate steps to prevent the spread of the disease, improve bird health, and minimize economic losses. Here is a general guideline on what to do during an outbreak like this:
1. Isolation and quarantine:
• Immediately isolate all sick birds from healthy birds.
Quarantine procedure, the affected area, and limit the movement of birds, equipment, and personnel to prevent the spread of disease.
Record keeping in poultry and report the outbreak to appropriate government agencies, such as the Department of Veterinary Services, as the law requires.
• Cooperate fully with veterinary authorities to provide necessary information and assistance.
3. Identification of the disease:
• Run diagnostic tests to identify the specific infectious agent causing the outbreak. This will help you customize your response strategy.
IMPORTANCE OF PROPER WASTE MANAGEMENT FOR POULTRY HEALTH IN KENYA?
Poor waste management Poultry can lead to farm health and welfare problems, foul odours, breeding flies, and soil and water contamination [10, 11]. Therefore, poultry waste management is essential for protecting the environment, human health and safety, and safe poultry production.
STRATEGIES TO BOOST IMMUNITY IN KENYAN POULTRY?
Immune-boosting supplements for hardy birds contribute to the success of your business. You can start by providing three trace elements: zinc, chromium, and selenium. Zinc paves the way for a healthy immune system, chromium gives them the ability to relieve stress, and selenium improves meat yield and quality by reducing oxidative stress.
When a bird experiences heat-related stress due to high temperatures or stocking densities, the adrenal glands secrete the corticosterone hormone. Elevated corticosterone levels lower dopamine levels, increasing respiration, heart rate, and body temperature. This increases the birds’ energy expenditure and reduces food consumption.
HOW TO MANAGE COCCIDIOSIS WITHOUT ANTIBIOTICS IN KENYAN POULTRY?
Coccidiosis control vaccines can also be used in organic poultry production. In this type of production, natural alternative feed additives, such as herbs or phytochemicals, can moderate and modulate the immune response without interfering with the development of immunity against coccidiosis.
RECOGNISING SIGNS OF POOR POULTRY HEALTH IN KENYAN FLOCKS?
Recognizing the signs of poor poultry health is vital to maintaining the welfare of your flock in Kenya. Healthy chickens are more productive and contribute to the success of a poultry farm. Here are some common signs of poor poultry health to look out for:
1. Decreased Appetite and Water Intake: A sudden food and water intake decrease could indicate an underlying poultry gut health problem. Chickens that do not eat or drink as usual can suffer from various diseases.
2. Lethargy and Weakness: Healthy chickens are active and alert. This could be a sign of kidney issues in poultry if you see chickens perpetually lethargic, hunched over, or unable to move as usual.
3. Abnormal discharge: Look for unusual discharge from the eyes, nostrils, or vents. Watery eyes, a runny nose, or foul-smelling diarrhoea in poultry can indicate infections or respiratory problems.
BEST PRACTICES FOR RODENT AND PEST CONTROL IN KENYAN POULTRY FARMS?
Use rodent control poultry like gloves when dispensing the bait for your protection and to avoid leaving a human odour on the bait, which may cause rodents to avoid the product. Make sure you have plenty of bait stations nearby, considering the habitat of rats and mice.
Metabolic issues Poultry and rodent populations generally remain low if one or more of these elements are missing in an area. Unfortunately, since chicken coops usually contain these three elements in abundance, keeping rats and mice out of the chicken coop is an ongoing challenge.
Rats and mice enter a hole large enough for their heads to fit through, as small as a quarter of an inch for mice or half an inch for rats. Once indoors, they can easily dig into loose, dry poultry litter, under-piled-up litter, dirty floors, interior walls, and wall and floor insulation.
HOW TO PREVENT EGGSHELL PROBLEMS IN KENYAN POULTRY?
Eggshell problem prevention in Kenyan or poultry involves maintaining good management practices, proper nutrition, and addressing potential health problems.
Here are some steps you can take to prevent eggshell problems:
1. Provide quality feed: Ensure you feed delivery biosecurity in poultry receives high-quality, balanced feed. The diet should contain adequate calcium, vitamin D3, phosphorus, and other essential nutrients. Calcium is essential for the formation of egg shells.
2. Calcium Supplementation: Provide a constant source of calcium for your birds. This can be done through commercial laying feeds that contain adequate calcium or by providing crushed oyster shells or calcium supplements.
3. Adequate Hydration: Ensure your poultry always has access to clean water. Dehydration can lead to eggshell problems.
4. Manage stress: stress management poultry in the environment. Stress can hurt egg production and shell quality. Suitable housing, ventilation, and handling practices are essential.
ROLE OF VACCINATIONS IN PREVENTING POULTRY DISEASE IN KENYA?
Poultry vaccination recommendations are widely used to prevent and control infectious poultry diseases. Its use in poultry production is intended to prevent and control infectious poultry diseases. Its use in poultry production aims to prevent or minimize the occurrence of clinical diseases at the farm level, thereby increasing production.
An optimized poultry vaccination schedule is the key to successful disease control in poultry production. In the Mekong Delta region, vaccination practices vary significantly from herd to herd, and farmers’ vaccination decisions are often not based on knowledge and can be biased
MANAGING NUTRITIONAL DEFICIECIES IN KENYAN POULTRY?
Managing nutritional deficiencies in Kenyan poultry is essential to maintaining the health and productivity of your flock. Proper nutrition is critical to ensuring your birds reach their growth and production potential. Here are some steps to help you manage nutritional deficiencies in Kenyan poultry:
1. Identify nutritional deficiencies:
• Regularly monitor the health keywords and performance of your herd for any signs of nutrient deficiencies. Common symptoms include poor growth, reduced egg production, feather abnormalities, and lethargy.
• Perform regular stool and blood tests to detect specific deficiencies, if necessary.
2. Balanced Diet:
• Consult a nutritionist or veterinarian to create a balanced nutrition plan for the poultry diet.
• The diet should contain essential nutrients such as protein, energy, vitamins, minerals, and water. Specific nutritional requirements may vary depending on the age and purpose of the animals (e.g., laying hens, broilers, or breeders).
3. High-quality food ingredients:
• Purchase high-quality food ingredients from reputable suppliers. Make sure the ingredients are fresh and free from contaminants.
• Consider using local grains and pulses readily available in Kenya to reduce feed costs.
• all necessary nutrients; consider supplementation. Common supplements include calcium, phosphorus, vitamins, and trace elements.
STEPS TO MAINTAIN PROPER BIOSECURITY DURING VISITORS ON THE FARM?
Maintaining good biosecurity practices on a farm when interacting with visitors is critical to preventing the spread of disease and maintaining animal and crop health. Here are the steps you can take to ensure effective biosecurity:
1. Visitor education:
• Provide biosecurity visitors with information about your company’s biosecurity protocols before their arrival. This can be done through brochures, signage, or pre-visit communication.
• Emphasize the importance of biosecurity at exhibitions and the potential impact of introducing disease into the herd.
2. Limited Access:
• Designate specific areas for visitors and restrict access to other areas where animals or crops are housed or grown.
• Provide controlled access points to monitor and manage visitor movements.
3. Biosafety Training:
• Organize a short biosafety training course for visitors before they enter the company. Teach them basic hygiene practices, such as hand washing and shoe disinfection
HOW TO PREVENT AND MANAGE BACTERIAL INFECTIONS IN KENYAN POULTRY?
Use of antibiotics for disease prophylaxis
Bacterial infection control in broiler and layer producers has been reported using antibiotics as disease prophylaxis in day-old chicks and adult birds. Nearly all producers reported using antibiotics to protect chicks from disease upon arrival from hatcheries.
Our results indicate the widespread use of antibiotics among poultry farmers at our study site. The interaction between farmer-level issues and broader social, economic, and structural factors influences antibiotic use. Promoting prudent management and the use of antibiotic-free management requires a multi-faceted One Health approach, focusing on regulatory frameworks, knowledge transfer, and research.
TIPS FOR CREATING A STRESS-FREE ENVIRONMENT FOR POULTRY IN KENYA?
By making many small changes, you can gradually progress toward creating a stress-free environment. The structure is an essential element in minimizing tensions. Doing a few simple household chores every day will make your home tidier, get you more exercise, and may make you feel like you have accomplished something.
There is much evidence linking colour to behaviour, so it is no surprise that this is also true at home. Red is suitable for detail-oriented activities, while blue is better for creativity. However, red can raise blood pressure and create a more stressful environment. It is, therefore, to be avoided as a chromatic choice for the bedroom and other relaxation areas. Yellow can also make people angry quicker. Conversely, blue and green colors can reduce stress and blood pressure, create a more peaceful environment and provide free-range disease control
IDENTIFYING AND TREATING PROTOZOAL DISEASES IN KENYAN POULTRY?A
approach, including appropriate management practices, diagnostic techniques, and treatment strategies. Protozoan disease treatment in poultry is often caused by parasites such as coccidia and Histomonas meleagridis (black spot disease).
Here is a general guideline for identifying and treating these diseases:
Coccidiosis: Coccidiosis is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria. It usually affects young birds and is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhoea, reduced feed intake, dehydration, and poor growth. In severe cases, you may notice blood in your stool.
Histomoniasis (blackhead disease): Histomoniasis is caused by the protozoan parasite Histomonas meleagridis. It affects turkeys and chickens and is often transmitted by the parasitic nematode Heterakis gallinarum. Symptoms include drooping and ruffled feathers, loss of appetite, and yellowish droppings.
2. Diagnostic techniques:
Veterinarians or poultry health experts can use several methods to diagnose protozoal diseases:
• Stool examination: Microscopic examination of stool samples can help identify the presence of coccidial oocysts or other protozoan parasites.
• Autopsy: Postmortem examination of dead birds can reveal characteristic lesions or parasites in the gut, aiding in diagnosis.
HOW TO CHOOSE THE RIGHT FEED FOR OPTIMAL POULTRY HEALTH IN KENYA?
Best practices for poultry feed formulation
Select high-quality ingredients: Get high-quality ingredients, such as grains, protein, and supplements, in Kenyan poultry care.
Nutrient Balance: Formulate feed to provide the correct balance of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals in managing poultry health
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